My tutor has suggested that after finishing the exercises in a Part of the course I take some time to look for connections and comparisons between works.
The most obvious comparisons can be made about the nature of painting. Particularly when doing a course like this which races through centuries, the history of modern painting seems to be a long series of move and countermove as artists react against their predecessors (or their previous selves) as they explore art. I started my study of this Part with Fauvism (see post 8-Dec-2014), noting those artists tended to be reacting against Impressionism, were anti-theoretical, and did not feel constrained to represent an objective world. Cézanne’s techniques (30-Jan-2014) were both additive and subtractive, making clearer the tension of artificial space, three dimensions on a two dimensional surface. Very relevant here is a blog post by my tutor, Gerald Deslandes, in which he commented on a recent exhibition in which the organisers focused on the particular light of the Mediterranean (see http://geralddeslandeslongerstuff.tumblr.com/post/69168538922/aix-marks-the-spot-post-impressionists-rodin), allowing perceptual Impressionism to be followed by conceptual Post-Imnpressionism. “Their argument was that only as a direct result of their exposure to the Mediterranean, did artists come to concern themselves with the flatness of the picture plane and with the expressive power of their emotions. Hence no longer were they concerned with merely copying nature through the conventions of perspective” (Deslandes, 2013).
Braque, previously a Fauvist, learnt from rather than reacted against Cézanne’s discoveries, shattering perspective and somehow creating volume without depth (9-Feb-2014). By the time of the abstract expressionists Clement Greenberg was able to assert that “Realist, illusionist art had dissembled the medium, using art to conceal art. Modernism used art to call attention to art” (27-Dec-2013). Greenberg championed the work of Jackson Pollock, focused on the flat surface of the canvas and the physical presence of the paint, but was less convinced by later works such as Blue Poles, where a hierarchy of sorts was re-introduced (26-Dec-2013). Pop art (7-Feb-2014) reacted against the heroic gestures of abstract expressionism, downplaying the hand of the artist. Space was flattened, but there was a definite foreground and background. I’ve had a post about conceptual art semi-written for some time, hoping for the right moment to finish it. The label covers a wide range of artistic practice but could include a total absence of the artist’s hands, either with assistants following instructions to create the artwork (as with Sol Le Witt) or by regarding the concept itself as sufficient.
Only a slight digression from the above, one comparison I find interesting involves use of space. Cézanne created space, contracted, expanded and distorted it (30-Jan-2014). Braque created space without distance using the relationships of parts (9-Feb-2014). The interesting addition is Henry Moore (15-Dec-2013). The space between the components of Hill Arches both separate and connect the work. It gives the viewer something to work with, to engage with. It also makes the location, the space around, a significant part of the sculpture.
Together with the nature of painting, the role and status of the artist has continued to evolve. It’s not a recent thing. Arachne’s fate was determined by her challenge to the authority of the goddess Minerva. Peter Paul Rubens’ Pallas and Arachne (see post 8-July-2013) shows the proud young Arachne at work at her loom, the artistic triumph of her tapestry, and the vengeful response of the goddess to such presumption. Painted in 1854, Courbet’s Bonjour M. Courbet (http://museefabre-en.montpellier-agglo.com/index.php/Know/Main_collections/Modern_movements/Modern_art_from_1850_to_1914/37/(num_oeuvre)/musee:MUS_BIEN:3655) shows the deferential attitude of collector Bruyas and his servant to the artist Courbet – a free man with his feet firmly in nature. During his life Cézanne was famous amongst other painters but by the time of Jackson Pollock the idea of the heroic, tortured and flawed artist was well established (post 26-Dec-2013). Later artists including Andy Warhol have very consciously sought celebrity (7-Feb-2014). When it came to Yoko Ono, I was so conscious of her celebrity status that I found it difficult to see the art (31-Jan-2014).
Contemporary politics, particularly the expansion of Europe, colonialism and post-colonialism has been examined in a number of works. Rembrandt’s Two old men disputing (13-Sep-2013) has a globe in the background which reflects the thirst for knowledge as well as wealth in the society of the time. The vanitas still life paintings around the same period responded to the religious unease of some in Holland when spending the new wealth that exploration and trading provided (11-Jan-2014). The defence of Rorke’s Drift 1879 by Alphonse de Neuville demonstrates an imperial power’s ability to take a country by force and to write a history that makes themselves heros for doing it (24-Oct-2013). Whether that action was for economic or political purposes is not clear. Europe’s colonial and economic might has faded over the years. The American Abstract Expressionist movement was heavily influenced by the Second World War, the related arrival of many Europeans in America, the relocation of the cutting edge of art to New York. The Cold War also played a part (27-Dec-2013). Currently, proppaNOW is a highly political collective, raising the concerns of urban aboriginal Australians (5-Jan-2014). The ongoing discrimination and disadvantage highlighted by this group is the direct result of European politics and colonisation. The politics shown in the other works I have mentioned is indirect, reflective of their times. ProppaNOW is deliberate and focused. As Richard Bell declares, “There is no better platform for politics than art … this way I don’t get arrested”. Finally I’d like to reference my recent Reflection (16-Feb-2014). While talking about art rather than art itself, the remarks that concerned me came I believe from a post-imperial mindset.
I hope to continue to explore some of these themes in later assignment choices.
Deslandes, G. (2013) Aix Marks the Spot: Post-Impressionists, Rodin, Photography, Contemporary Art [online] Available from http://geralddeslandeslongerstuff.tumblr.com/post/69168538922/aix-marks-the-spot-post-impressionists-rodin (Accessed 2-Mar-2014)
Understanding Art 1 – Western Art.
Part three: Modern art and still life