Archive for the '4 – Textile structures' Category

Assignment 4 Reflective Commentary

I’ve spent the last day or so going getting Assignment 4 ready to post (snail mail post, that is). Each assignment the practicalities of that get easier – I reuse folders, have tags and labels ready to go, standard document formats on the computer etc. This means I can focus on reviewing what I’ve done over the last three months, plus the challenging task of editing the material down to fit postage limits. Overall I’m pleased with what I have to show my tutor, I think I have made solid progress – so it will be interesting to get Pat’s feedback since she is very good at blending positive feedback with prods at the soggy bits and suggestions for further stretching.

A review of Project 8 work can be found on 12-Oct-2012. Project 9 is covered on 16-Nov-2012, although that focuses more on the final piece of work. Looking back, major themes for me during the assignment have been trying to work more visually and intuitively (not so easy with the weaving component!), and trying to let go and trust the process we are being taught (sorting yarns, using mood boards, more detailed yarn wrappings…). Concerned that I might relax in my “safe place” of yarns and weaving, I also decided to challenge myself with the materials I used. All of this has made me uncomfortable at times, but I think I’m going in the right direction. The skills and equipment from my weaving past certainly helped, but I stepped well beyond my old boundaries and techniques. I’m excited about future possibilities and exploration.

Photos of all my sketchbook work during this assignment can be seen on this page. I’ve tried to mix up approaches, to keep it fresh, but mainly at the moment it relates to project work or whatever reading I’m doing.

The Research Point was very interesting and I’m continuing reading in the area.

I’ve made a little progress on my themebook – just a few sketches and collecting newspaper articles and comments. It’s mostly been thinking, trying to isolate a particular aspect or focal point. On the other hand I’ve also been trying to keep an open mind, not zero in on anything too quickly. It will be good to concentrate on this in Assignment 5.

Research Point: Textile Artist Liz Williamson

This post is the last of Assignment 4’s research into Textile Art. There are links to all the previous posts on my last entry, about Julie Ryder (posted 18-Nov-2012).
The photo shows Liz Williamson at Barometer Gallery for Julie Ryder’s talk. I’m rather appalled to find that I don’t have photos of Liz’s work, so I have pushed the photo taken on my mobile phone to its limits to provide the closeup on the right. There are many more images and links to a huge amount of information at http://redobjects.unsw.edu.au/people/liz-williamson/.
The focus of this research point is the artist’s work – a description and the concepts expressed. The piece in the photo is from her ‘Loop’ series. It is an continuation of an ongoing theme of protection. I think it is a wearable variant of Liz’s ‘Sac’ series – doubleweave containers or nests, expressing concepts of enclosing, wrapping, shelter and protecting. The colours are dark and earthy, the materials include leather and silk dyed with black henna.
Another concept Liz has explored in her work has revolved around darning – usually an invisible form of repairing and prolonging the life of a textile, in her work made visible. Darns are records of marks, but worked to be unseen – often by women who themselves are invisible in the Australian history / mythology of nation-building. Liz has presented this very domestic work in gallery settings. The darned cloth has a memory of the body that wore or used it embedded in its surface. Liz has also recreated the texture of darning marks in jacquard weavings, enlarged, embellished and exaggerated, becoming visible works of art.
Darns and worn, deteriorated cloth can also be viewed as a metaphor for the aging that is part of all life. In her ‘Worn’ work Liz explored the processes of life and experience, aging bringing maturity, wisdom, remembered experience and a different kind of beauty to that of youth. This is not nostalgia or yearning for some golden past. To me it appears not a celebration or glorification of the past, more an honouring of it and recognizing that our present will soon be past. The resulting cloth has “a beauty of fragility, of suffering, of survival, and essentially of memory” (Lamb, 1996).

Previously (posts 22-Oct-2012 and 1-Nov-2012) I’ve written about the blended or interleaved roles filled by Textile Artists – designers, artists, craftspeople, teachers, academics, marketers, who work alone, with assistants, or in collaboration. Liz Williamson is the living embodiment of this ideal, a modern renaissance woman doing all this and more with charm and grace. Gushy and awkward, but consider:

Liz is a true master in the craft of weaving and has been recognised as a Living Treasure, a Master of Australian Craft. Since first enrolling in an introductory weaving course in 1977 she has studied and experimented with a wide range of weave structures and materials. She is technically very accomplished and has been published in mainstream weaving books such as her fulled seersucker scarves in The best of Weaver’s: Fabrics that go bump. Liz continues to push the boundaries of contemporary weave and was one of the artists included in the recently published Warp & weft: Woven Textiles in Fashion, Art and Interiors by Jessica Hemmings.

Liz holds academic credentials – MFA (COFA), B Art : Textile Design (RMIT), B Economics (Melb Uni) – and is currently Head, School of Design Studies at COFA (College of Fine Arts, The University of New South Wales). I have heard she will become an Associate Professor in the new year (staff profile here).

Clearly her role at COFA involves teaching, but I prefer to refer to the class I took with her at Sturt early this year (see post 14-Jan-2012). The photo shows work that I and my friend Desdemona did during that class. Des and another class member had no previous experience of weaving, but were able to produce beautiful work using advanced techniques such as doubleweave in neoprene in just a few days with Liz. Liz also inspired us with pieces from her extensive collection of textiles from around the world, plus a pile of books she shared with us during the week (my ongoing interest in Sheila Hicks was one result).

The photo on the left shows a scarf from Liz Williamson: Asian Selection. Liz has been involved in a number of textile development projects in Asia, working with local artisans to develop products for the contemporary marketplace. Both her design skills and cultural sensitivity have been required, for example working with a group in West Bengal who create embroidered scarves combining traditional Indian motifs with Liz’s colour palette and sizing (see more at sangamproject.net). Liz promotes and sells the work of such artisans through her Asian Selection.

Another example of her collaborative approach is Liz’s participation in Research in Experimental Design: Objects RED Objects, “a collaboration of practitioners and researchers exploring the relationships between design, craft, visual art, and their commentaries”. Last year I attended a symposium organised by the group (mentioned in my post on 16-Sept-2012) which examined methods of collaboration. A selection of papers from the Symposium can be found at http://redobjects.unsw.edu.au/research/publications/.

Finally, Liz’s advocacy for textiles and textile art in Australia has included ongoing support of The Australian Textiles Arts and Surface Design Association (ATSADA – the textile group I’m in). Liz has been guest presenter at a meeting, has Opened a number of our exhibitions, and was a major driver and supporter of the Art Textiles conference ATASDA presented in 2008 with Keynote speaker Jane Dunnewold.

I think all of that (which of course is just a small selection of Liz’s contribution to textiles) justifies just a little gush!

Resources
http://redobjects.unsw.edu.au/people/liz-williamson/ Accessed 22-Nov-2012
(2006) Visible Darning: Liz Williamson Leaflet from exhibition held in Object Gallery 15 July – 27 August 2006
Cochrane, C. (2008) Liz Williamson: Textiles in the Living Treasures: Masters of Australian Craft series, Victoria: Craftsman House.
Hemmings, J. (2012) Warp & weft: Woven textiles in fashion, art and interiors. London: Bloomsbury Publishing
Koumis, M. (ed) (2007) Art Textiles of the World: Australia volume 2, Brighton: Telos Art Publishing
Lamb, J, (1996) “Liz Williamson” in Lamb, J. (ed) Below the surface Goulburn: Goulburn Regional Art Gallery.
Van der Hoogt, M. (2002) The best of Weaver’s: Fabrics that go bump Sioux Falls: XRX Inc
http://sangamproject.net/jugalbandi-designed-and-made-in-australia-and-india/liz-williamson-woven-in-asia Accessed 24-Nov-2012
http://redobjects.unsw.edu.au/ Accessed 24-Nov-2012
http://redobjects.unsw.edu.au/research/publications/ Accessed 24-Nov-2012.

Research Point: Textile Artist Julie Ryder

Throughout Assignment 4 I have been working on an investigation into the work of the textile artist. Previous posts have been around the question “what is a textile artist?” – see discussion on Craft (18-Aug-2012 and 20-Aug-2012), textiles in Art as distinct from Textile Art (27-Aug-2012), a side-excursion on Art / Textile Art / Documentary (22-Oct-2012) and Designers and Designer/Makers (1-Nov-2012). The final requirement is to write about two internationally known textile artists. It was important to me to write about artists based in Australia whose work I have seen in life, not just photos. My first selection is Julie Ryder, seen in the photo at her artist talk during her recent exhibition Second Nature at Barometer Gallery.

All of these photos were taken at the exhibition, with Julie’s permission. I love the sunlight and shadows adding even more to the complexity of the marks on the cloth. Julie trained in science earlier in her life and the knowledge and disciplines gained in that time have remained a thread in her textile works. The fabric in the exhibition is mainly antique Japanese kimono silk dyed using a fruit fermentation process that Julie developed. In simple terms, cut unpeeled fruit in half (lemons work well), arrange pieces cut side down on fabric, leave for 6 months or so to ferment, scrub off the putrid black mess and you have your dyed cloth.
The complexities include measures to minimise risk with the massive volumes of mold spores created. Julie had access to special facilities, had to go through a lengthy process to determine risks and get approval for her work, and she wore appropriate safety gear when working. In fact all of the material in this exhibition was dyed by Julie fifteen or so years ago. A curator was particularly keen to exhibit work in this series, Julie no longer has access to suitable facilities (and I think was reluctant to return to a quite toxic process), so she worked with the pieces of dyed cloth still available to her.
The pieces range from button size to the hangings you can see in the photo, but all are human in scale. In some Julie presents the dyed cloth hanging simply, allowing the beauty of the marks on the woven texture of the silk space to speak. In other works she has combined fragments of cloth with hand stitching. Occasionally there is more stitching on the cloth, responding to the marks that have been made.
There is a gentleness and serenity in the results. Julie has said that her design philosophy fits in the Japanese concept of wabi-sabi. She also references the break down of matter, the phases and numerology in alchemy. Seams shown on the outside reflect the inner beauty of people and things. (1)
In the time between her original work with fruit fermentation and the recent exhibition Julie has extended her range of techniques as she continues to investigate her particular interests. The photo on the left is to give just a taste of that. On the left is a cover of Textile Fibre Forum magazine, showing work from the 2005 artandthebryophyte exhibition(2) (I didn’t see this exhibition myself). On the right are leaflets I picked up at generate, an exhibition at the Australian National Botanic Gardens in 2008 inspired by Charles Darwin (3).

The digitally printed silk organza on the magazine cover, colourful and crisp, seems a world away from the natural dyeing of the fruit fermentation. For Julie it was a logical progression. Faced with restrictions on bacteria she could use in dyeing, she used a scanning election microscope to examine the structures of micro-organisms. The photomicrographs became the inspiration for digital printing, although she retained an element of hand work and connection to the cloth in the post-printing finishing. The works also reflect the research Julie undertook on the history of botanical science, systems of naming and more. As well as the printed silks Julie printed on paper and used collage and assemblage, using the drawers of a large cabinet of drawers to create a contemporary cabinet of curiosities.

Generate explored the life and theories of Charles Darwin. As well as lengths of digitally printed silk, Julie went through a painstaking process of hand-cutting circles from leave then arranging the dots on tapa cloth to create images based on Charles, his wife Emma, and grandfather Josiah Wedgwood. These ‘portraits’ use symbols from historical textiles to represent their subjects. From memory, the actual leaves with all their holes were arranged in a drift along the base of the display cabinets. There was also a glass ‘tree of life’ – glass branches and glass medallions incised with fantastic creatures. There are multiple depths of meaning – for example she used both native and exotic species of leaves “to show how cultures like introduced species react” (4).

Overall it seems to me that Julie’s work is heavily ideas and research driven with a disciplined, scientific approach. She is interested in what lies underneath, not obvious – often at the micro level. Frequently her subject matter is botanical or biological in nature. In most cases her work involves creating colour on cloth. Julie uses a mix of traditional and modern techniques and materials. However leaving those generalisations she seems to engage afresh with each new area that interest or opportunity leads her to. Julie brings all her past knowledge and experience and skills to her present work, but she doesn’t force them onto or into it. She researches and responds to what she learns, developing new themes, new symbolic imagery, new techniques and processes each time.

I’ve listed some links to more information on Julie and her work below.

(1) Koumis, M. (ed) (2007) Art Textiles of the World: Australia volume 2, Brighton: Telos Art Publishing
(2) (2005) Julie Ryder. Textile Fibre Forum, 80(4), Front and inside cover and page 10
(3) (2008) Generate: Julie Ryder. Exhibition leaflet. Australian National Botanic Gardens; ACT Government.
(4) Maher, L. (28 January, 2009) Darwin inspires art http://www.abc.net.au/local/stories/2009/01/28/2476179.htm accessed 26-oct-2012

Further information
http://www.craftact.org.au/portfolios/artist.php?id=310 accessed 26-oct-2012
http://www.craftaustralia.org.au/library/adventure.php?id=hill_end accessed 26-oct-2012
http://www.craftact.org.au/companionplanting accessed 26-oct-2012

Project 9 Stage 4 – part 2

See my post of 6-Nov-2012 for the initial work on this stage. It was fairly well progressed, but with a major question mark about how well I could create shapes in the planned scale of the weaving plus a big gap in process with no yarn wrapping done.
The first question was resolved pretty easily. I put on my cotton warp and did a quick, temporary sample with the yarn bundles already developed. The angular shaping I wanted worked quite well and with a fairly wide sett I was able to get good coverage of the warp with my yarn bundles. (I just left the un-needed warp ends pushed to the side).
Encouraged by this I went on to do a full yarn wrapping. This photo shows the original photo combination, the wrapping, plus a separate card to help me reproduce the yarn bundles. Clearly some of my colour mixes are quite different to the photo.
Maybe they didn’t match the printed photo, but what about the photo on my computer screen, other photos from the island, and most importantly colours in my head from having been there just a few weeks ago? There are different colours in a couple of the build-up sketches I did where I had stepped away from the original images into a more geometric arrangement. Add into all of that the colours that I think will look good together in a woven piece. My choice was to regard the photos as part of the inspiration and a guide, but not a “source of truth”. This turned out to be an ongoing battle during the weaving – holding on to my rather abstracted design and not reverting to a more literal approach.
The finished work is about 41cm by 12 cm. It’s irregular in shape, but that’s less apparent in real life. Also the orange areas at the bottom are strong but don’t shout as they do in the photo.
Generally I’ve been able to get the diagonal lines that I wanted. The image is more recognisable than I intended. I think the mixing of the yarns bundles worked well. At a distance there are clear blocks of colour (except for a mid-blue group in the middle below the point which is indistinguishable from the slightly darker blue to its left). Close up there is lots of interest when you can see the individual colours. Close or distant, the mixing provides good texture that works for both the granite and the water. I chose not to add any extra textural elements with soumak – it would have been out of scale and I think an awkward interruption to the main image. Plus it would be technically difficult – at times I had four weft bundles working at once, all creating different diagonals, and that was quite enough to think about.
It was interesting to experience the impact of the preparation process. The early part of the weaving went fairly easily, even though I was still learning technique. However I hadn’t fully resolved the shapes around the rockpool in any of my sketches, largely because I didn’t have the experience to know what I would find possible in practice. In the event I was able to get some nice shapes – in particular that triangle of blacks and greys coming in from the left.
The area near the top has a couple of horizontals, particularly the shore line of the distant island. This makes the work much more readable as an image and horizontals in the water were part of my original plan. On balance I like the variety it gives – but it would be interesting to see a version that continued diagonals throughout.
This photo shows the inspiration photo, the final work and the sketch which first showed me how I could use the inspiration in a piece of weaving. To me it illustrates a bit more clearly my reasons or process in moving quite far from the photo colours, particularly in the foreground granite and lichen.
The course notes have questions on specific areas of the project at this point.
* Variety of yarns and other materials, and impact on look and feel of samples.
In the early stages (posted 14-Oct-2012) I used a variety of “standard” yarns – wools, bundled yarns, fancy knitting yarns and torn strips of cloth. In my larger sample in stage 3 (posted 21-Oct-2012) I re-purposed materials from hardware and jewllery-findings stores, plus spun various papers and kitchen goods. My final sample from that stage (posted 26-Oct-2012) was largely newspaper, neoprene and insect screen. The sample from stage 4, shown in this post, returned to more traditional yarns – a wide variety of natural and man-made yarns bundled together. To my surprise weaving accepts, accommodates, tames and unifies them all. There is beautiful visual texture from the newspaper, forming my pebbly beach. Creating the yarn bundles above posed different challenges to spinning newspaper, but the results were just as effective in their own way in suggesting a rugged shoreline. In my weaving in the past the specific materials were critical – for example the combination of 20/2 silk and a laceweight Cashmerino (70% merino, 30% cashmere) in a deflected doubleweave scarf (posted 25-Oct-2009) to create a beautiful texture by taking advantage of their different properties in washing. I wouldn’t want to wash any of these new weavings!
* Weaving compared to other techniques.
This was not weaving-as-I-knew-it, but I still found it very enjoyable and absorbing. I love the whole idea of creating cloth; that the image or pattern is integral to the very substance of the result, not just added in or painted on. It seems more personal, more thoroughly an expression of my self. It could be seen as slow, but french knots are slower. It could be seen as repetitive, but especially with this style of weaving I was making decisions and watching for possibilities all the time – although in honesty I enjoy the repetitive, alert meditation of “standard” weaving. It has its limits, as does everything – for example I abandoned my ideas about grasses on a beach. I’m really looking forward to combining weaving with other techniques more.
* Aspects of the final sample.
The quick answer is that I like it very much. The proportions work well with the diagonal design and the depth of image that I wanted. I think the textures work well, and there is a variation that supports and enhances the design. The lumpy, uneven shape is distracting – a combination of poor technique and differences in thickness of the yarn bundles, plus my choice of equipment could be a factor. I wouldn’t want to change the yarn bundles, but better technique, experience and slowing down a bit could help. There’s an area just below the outcrop of rock where I intended different shapes, but my yarn choice was poor and two of the shapes merge. The fix there is clear! Also as mentioned above it would be interesting to try a version that stepped further from the original image into a more pure play of colour and angles.
* Design process.
It’s quite clear to me that I got a better result by attending to the design process. I did _not_ want to do the yarn wrapping. I felt I had done a few trials and that going further would be just a formality with no particular benefit. Instead I found it helped me to focus and identify problems in my initial yarn bundles. Based on the wrapping I made a number of improvements as I went. One that didn’t work was in the blue area already mentioned. With hindsight I should have done a second wrapping or adjusted the first until I was completely happy. At the time I felt I was getting stale and would loose enthusiasm for and interest in the actual weaving.
* Working from source material versus putting colours together intuitively.
In the past I have thought of a theme (say “hydrangeas”), looked through some photos, but made the actual yarn choices from memory and emotion rather than carefully analysing source material. In the final sample I enjoyed the hybrid approach (apart from concerns about not meeting the assignment brief). Careful experimentation and planning allowed me to refine choices and correct mistakes. That didn’t work entirely, but I think I prefer to risk a few mistakes (aka learning opportunities) rather than rigidly locking in choices and not having the flexibility to respond to the work in front of me. There were some colour problems in both my final sample and the seaweed/stoney beach sample – but I think experience will help me avoid similar problems in the future.
Re-reading the above, I see quite a bit of conflict in my responses. Do a second wrapping to refine colour choices, but risk errors to allow flexibility. Well, I’ve long thought that consistency is over-rated. More seriously, I feel there is enjoyment and risk in both approaches. I wouldn’t want to rule out either.

Project 9 Stage 4 process check

It was interesting to hear how important Process is in Ruark Lewis’s work (blog post 4-Nov-2012). It’s also very important in the OCA course – we not only have to produce work, we have to show our design process and the decisions we’ve made to reach our final product. Actually I think the word “process” has extra nuances that I don’t yet understand.

I’ve been working on this final stage of Project 9 for a couple of weeks now and have yet to touch the loom. I’ve changed tack a few times, and feel the need to take stock of the process so far, check that I’m happy with my choices and (not un-importantly!) check that what I’m doing meets the project requirements.

The task is to develop design ideas into weaving of a large sample piece. Two approaches are given:
Approach 1: Analyse colour, texture and proportion in source material or sketch(see post 7-Sept-2012 at the beginning of this Assignment to see my past attempts at that). Make a yarn wrapping. Develop into stripes on graph paper. Weave. Of course there’s lots more detail / suggestions / instructions / guidance than that.
Approach 2: A more intuitive approach. Select a word – exotic, tribal, rural… Make a storyboard of images. Select areas, thinking about colour, proportions, energy. Select yarns and make a wrapping. Add to mood board, adjust until it expresses the mood of your chosen word. Plan and sequence roughly. Weave to interpret the ideas and express the mood of the word.

I had enjoyed working with the photo of seaweed in the previous stage (see post 26-Oct-2012), so decided to use “coastal” as my theme word.

Of course there’s a lot of different “coastal”, and at first I wanted to stay on the same beach on King Island. To keep it fresh and different I left the seaweed and moved focus to the water and especially some grasses.

So I did a little sketching of the grasses, and tried out some yarns that might work, and pinned them up with photos and other bits and pieces I thought could work in a mood board. I liked the idea of horizontal stripes of colour and texture in the sand, sea, distant island and sky, but I wanted to get that movement and interest of grass across the image or at least some kind of graphic element based on them that would add an extra layer of interest. I dug out weaving books and samples, was wondering how far I could stretch danish medallions, how else to get diagonal lines… then realised not only was I getting lost in technicalities of weaving, but weaving really isn’t the right process or technique for the image in my head, or at least be only one component of it. Plus it would be a nice change to have some more colour. Time to step back and regroup.


Going through photos from my recent trip (blog post 7-Oct-2012) I was struck by the ones above from Flinders Island. Although the colours look quite different, they were taken maybe 100 metres and 15 minutes apart.
A quick sketch (badly photographed in late afternoon light last weekend) looked promising. I liked the combination of colours and the level of abstraction.

I used gimp to combine elements of the two photos, then drew a more careful plan for the potential weaving. (Sorry, another poor photo).

Earlier in Stage 1 I really liked the effect I got when using a dozen or so fine threads of similar colours together (post 14-Oct-2012). I could create different bundles for each shape, and use more textured yarns in the closer areas to help suggest some depth and change through the weaving without being too literal.
Which has brought me to a worktable covered in yarn candidates, some sample yarn bundles, and a series of mood boards taking over a corner of the room.

So the current plan is:
* long thin warp, a smooth cotton and fiddle with sett to get good coverage by weft
* yarn bundles following colours in combined photo. Boucles and thicker yarns, mostly matt (wools etc) in close rocks. Finer, smoother yarns behind and more shine. Little or no wool in water.
* Maybe a few extra bits of yarns here and there – eg for waves
* Limited additional texture in the actual weaving – mostly plain weave, perhaps a bit of soumak or bumps over a knitting needle here and there.
* I’d like to get the shapes in my drawing, but may not be able to make them sharp and the slopes nice given the scale of the weaving. If necessary I will change to stripes, but follow proportions and colours as planned. Either way I’m planning horizontal bands for the water and sky – it fits with the image better and provides a contrast the the angular rocks.

Writing this has confirmed my suspicion that I haven’t followed either of the suggested processes, it’s been more of a mixture. However I feel I have analysed colour, texture and proportions and I have selected at least some of the yarns, I have a fairly clear plan (and backup plan) for the actual weaving, and I have mood board(s) in progress. The one thing that was emphasised in both approaches that I haven’t done is a careful yarn wrapping. I’m hesitating because I want to see my first bundle or two on the loom – I don’t want to commit to creating a full set until I know if I need to adjust size and composition of bundles to get the effect I want in the weaving.

I feel quite encouraged by this review, and confident that I’ve done enough to be able to warp and start weaving. For an extra layer of mood board, I’ll finish with a few more photos taken on the very beautiful Trousers Point on Flinders Island. The rock is actually an apricot coloured granite, with bands of orange lichen. Many of the views are across the waters of Franklin Sound, to the mountains of Cape Barren Island.

 

Research point: Designers and Designer/Makers

This post follows on from those about Craft (18-Aug-2012 and 20-Aug-2012), textiles in Art as distinct from Textile Art (27-Aug-2012) and a side-excursion on Art / Textile Art / Documentary (22-Oct-2012). I don’t have any particular photographs of textile designs or designers, so the images in this post are of sketchbook work I did while reading two of the texts in the course reading list – Textile designers at the cutting edge (1) and Textiles Now (2) (also in my sketchbook starting 29-Sept-2012).

After searching for quite a time, I haven’t found a single, concise, comprehensive definition of “design”. To design is to create a plan or specification for an outcome or product. There’s generally a functional aspect and there may be aesthetic considerations. Often a design will be produced in multiples or mass production, in different colour-ways and design variations. The production work could be by hand, machine, or a combination. Sometimes good design will go unnoticed, the item performing its function as expected. We’ve all experienced negatives from poor design. For example I once had an electric kettle, a simple and plain shape except for some decorative grooves along the length of the handle – which channeled the steam into your hand while pouring the boiling water.

A designer may work in multiple disciplines. Their skills and interests lead them to collaborate and develop relationships with makers and industry to produce their designs. Alison Page is an Australian indigenous designer who has won a place in the British Council’s Accelerate program. Experienced in design for interiors and jewellery, Page is interested in working with manufacturers of textiles, carpets, lighting, or many other kinds of product. Her vision is about qualities of the design – beautiful, sustainable, and a spiritual layer telling a story about her indigenous culture.(3) Lucy Simpson is another Australian indigenous designer, telling the stories of her Yuwaalaraay family and homeland through textiles. Previously a graphic designer she now designs printed textiles for her campany Gaawaa Miyay working with Publisher Textiles to produce her designs. The tactile nature of textiles, the connection to memory that touch can give, is important to Simpson, as are beauty and sustainability (4). There are some interesting videos of Simpson talking about her work in the article cited (here) and on the Gaawaa Miyay site (here).

Designers may or may not have specific knowledge of and skills in the particular media and techniques used to carry out their designs. A designer/maker will implement the designs they have created. They can develop a deep understanding of their materials and processes, leading to designs that take advantage of all their best properties. That doesn’t negate the possibility for pushing further, introducing new ideas and challenging accepted norms.

In Weaving textiles that shape themselves Ann Richards devotes the final chapter to “Designing as a conversation” (6). In this design is presented as a reflexive practice in which the designer responds and adapts to the material, ready to learn from setbacks, to seek fresh ideas and challenges and to see the design emerge and improve through the process. Richards presents a general process for beginning and developing a design, but her specific focus is the considerations and specifics of weaving. The depth of knowledge, the thought, care and respect shown for materials, product and process is inspiring. The many beautiful photographs of examples help too!

I’ve already presented my end position – that today individuals regularly cross boundaries and combine and interleave different roles as designers, artists, craftspeople and more, working alone, with assistants, or in collaboration (blog post 22-Oct-2012). This week I got a new book in the post (well, a few new books, but one that is relevant just now). In her Foreword to One work: Sheila Hicks at The Mint Kathleen Jameson writes “…this one work is an outstanding example of the cross-pollination in the fields of art, craft, and design that is so pervasive in 21st-century artistic practice. In choosing thread and textiles as her medium, since the late 1950s Hicks has worked both as an artist and a designer, moving nimbly between the two worlds, decades before they overlapped more eloquently.” (5) I believe that boundaries in work descriptions and practices are much more fluid than in the past. Artists/designers/craftspeople in particular need to be flexible, creating and taking opportunities to make work, to find audiences and to make a living. We are, I hope, near the end of a period of adjustment when institutions and individuals in the field were coming to grips with this change and the implications. I’m not suggesting the old categories are meaningless or useless. They remain one component helping us work in and make sense of a complex environment – descriptive, but not proscriptive.

I wrote the above a few days ago but it didn’t seem finished. On re-reading I can see some flaws in my argument.

First, it might seem that I’m expecting everyone to balance multiple hats and to move between modes and types of work freely. Not at all. The answers and choices that are right for me will be different to another’s choices. I’m arguing against artificial boundaries, or the arbitrary rules of some Authority.

Second, how does my concern for the preservation of craft fit in this? Certainly I feel concern about possible loss of knowledge and skills, and I am uncomfortable with the idea of designers-for-hire, who will turn their hand to any type of product in any type of materials. There’s more in my post of 16-Sept-2011 on Preserving Crafts. More thinking required.

Finally, perhaps I am over-enthusiastic and just wrong. There may be some who have been able to cross boundaries, but that doesn’t mean that boundaries aren’t still current and enforced elsewhere or for other people. I have no answer to that. There will be lots of different experiences, and change doesn’t happen all at once. Time may tell.

(1) Quinn, B. (2004) Textile Designers at the cutting edge London:Laurence King Publications
(2) Cole, D. (2008) Textiles Now London: Laurence King Publishing
(3) Frew, W. (2012). The rise of the allegorist in Australian design. The Sydney Morning Herald, 19 October, p. 13.
(4) Safe, G., 2012. Indigenous flair with feeling. The Sydney Morning Herald, 9 September. Link http://www.smh.com.au/lifestyle/fashion/indigenous-flair-with-feeling-20120914-25w1a.html Accessed 27 October 2012
(5) Jameson, K., 2012. Foreword. In: One work: Sheila Hicks at The Mint. Charlotte: Mint Museum of Art, Inc, p. 9.
(6) Richards, A. (2012) Weaving textiles that shape themselves Marlborough: The Crowood Press Ltd

Other resources
British Council Accelerate
http://www.gaawaamiyay.com/
http://www.publishertextiles.com.au/

Project 9 Woven Structures Stage 3 part 2

In the first part of this Stage (blogged 21-Oct-2012) I attempted to create woven surface textures based on some photographs taken on King Island. Next I needed to develop a sample based on some of the most exciting results.

I tried to develop some ideas in my sketchbook, but it was a struggle – too much structure and I lost any connection to seaweed, too little and I had an amorphous blob (see my sketchbook entries from 14-Oct-2012). Eventually I finished with this photo of the seaweed on stones, and made a rough weaving plan. The spun newspaper could suggest the stony beach and a range of black texture effects used to give the impression of a path of seaweed sweeping across the image from foreground to background.


Things I like:
* The piece is about 22 x 14 cm, and quite by accident reminds me of a holiday postcard.
* The newspaper works well as a background-with-character.
* The variety of textures, techniques and shape give the impression of movement and distance. There is insect screen, neoprene tubing and tissue paper. Techniques are plain weave, 5-end satin, soumak and ghiordes knots.
* The neat top and bottom edges support the postcard idea. The bottom is a kind of chaining of the loops of warp that were over the warp rod. At the top I did some plain weave, a row of soumak to make a clean turning edge, and some more plain weave to form a hem at the back.

Things that could be better:
* I really don’t like the way the warp becomes visible on the black towards the top. I wanted a smooth progress of texture. I tried a couple of other yarns to get better coverage, but the changes in colour and texture were jarring. I had been careful with my planned yarns to introduce them gradually. Better yarn selection from the start would help. A black warp could work, although this would have an impact on the background, resulting in a grid effect. I could also try painting the warp in the planned seaweed area prior to weaving.
* While I like the effect of the neoprene picks across the whole width (they create some visual continuity and provide some needed structure, as well as making it clear that this isn’t an attempt at realism), it would be interesting to vary the width of the lines from bottom to top to increase the sense of depth.
* The shaping at the top doesn’t work. It’s made worse by a couple of bad choices on the slope of the curve, plus the variation in colour of the newspaper. This could be improved by practice in the technique and more considered selection of parts of newspaper to use.
* I don’t think it’s apparent in the result, but I had a lot of difficulties weaving with the paper. Improved spinning technique and a wider shed on the loom would assist.

Project 9 Woven Structures Stage 3 part 1

This stage involves experimenting with different materials to create some interesting surface textures. As an initial inspiration I was thinking of some of the textures in seaweed, rocks and water that I saw on King Island on my recent trip (blogged 7-Oct-2012). The second part of the Stage is to select some of the most exciting sections and develop a sample piece. Currently I don’t feel too excited about any of my experiments, so I’ve decided to cut it off the loom, review results, and try to figure out a way to add some oomph.

The list of wefts grew as I went and in theory is promising, but the end result is really … just a bit too polite.

Top row left to right: fly screen mesh; individual fibres taken from screen; waxed black string; a light beading/fishing line; neoprene tube; a stiff black plastic(?) that reminds me of horsehair; handspun tissue paper – from stores, one with added black gloss lettering, the other with gold lettering; black woven cord, a bit like very thin shoelace; white knit cotton tube (plant tie); multiple strands of anonymous medium weight black thread; silver shredded paper.
Second row: I was rather chuffed with my success in spinning tissue paper, so I went on to spin: cooking foil; cooking foil held with cellophane; newspaper. Not needing spinning: cling film (from the kitchen); bubblewrap.

**Edited to add – the bubblewrap idea was taken from Claire’s work here. Thank you Claire!**

The warp was the rug linen warp.

Surely something there should lead to interesting and/or exciting???

Above is a front and back lit comparison. Next some detail.


I started off with the strip of insect screen. I’d really liked the result I got with it in the braiding section (blogged 16-Sept-2012).

After just a couple of picks of plain weave I could see it was crushing down and all that texture lost. I put in a section with the waxed string, to keep the various experiments separate plus in the hope of creating an interesting effect when backlit – filtered areas of screen divided by solid bands. Next was a row of soumak – good height above the plane of the fabric, but crushed down. After another band of waxed string I tried a structure with longer floats so that more of the “yarn” would be displayed (more about the structure below, on a part that is clearer. This was better, but all the spikey bits created by fraying the edge of the strip was ending up underneath instead of on top. The final part was the same structure but not pre-fraying the strip.

The photos above show on the left the front of the fabric – not the wild texture I was hoping for, but the later sections with almost oval shapes is reminiscent of some of the seaweed.The middle photo is the back, showing some nice spikey action, which could be useful if I could control it and get it to the front. The photo on the right is backlit. There is a hint of the banding I hoped to achieve, but not enough to bother with. I didn’t try ghiordes knots, but that could break up the politeness a bit.

The next section used a couple of yarns I got from Feeling Inspired – some thin black neoprene tubing and some fishing line. I wound five pieces of the fishing line together on the shuttle. In the photos above you can see the front of the fabric, the front at an angle to show some of the height, and a back view.

I started with a little plain weave in fishing line. Then comes a section which is pretty much a five-end satin. Basically the black neoprene floats above four warp ends, then under one (total five warp ends). Each time across the warp thread the weft goes under changes. First time across the weft goes under the first warp thread in each group of five. Next time across it goes under the third warp thread. Next the fifth; next the second; next the fourth. Then you repeat. In this example I wove a pick of fishing line between each pick of the black. In a normal satin you wouldn’t, the weft would pack down and you get a smooth surface. Here you get fairly long smooth lines on the top and dotting underneath. This is the same structure I used in the earlier section.

After the “satin” is a row of soumak in neoprene, an area of plain weave in neoprene, and a row of soumak in fishing line.

The backlit view of this area reminds me of glass bricks. There’s almost a watery texture to it when close up, but that’s only at a high detail level.

The soumak in fishing line could bring some highlights and sparkle into an area representing water. The longer floats give a flowing horizontal line with just a bit of diagonal movement. I can’t see seaweed in it. I wonder how tricky it would be to take soumak in different directions, going over wefts as well as warps and jumping from row to row.

Going further up the fabric there is the plastic “horse hair”. In a bundle like this it doesn’t really bend and there’s a glossy ribbon-like appearance. It doesn’t work in a seaweed idea, but could look really good in a sharp, modern layout, maybe framing something.

After a bit more neoprene we come to the handspun tissue paper. I’ve wanted to try spinning paper since seeing Fabrication No. 3 by Wang Lei at the White Rabbit gallery last year – info at www.whiterabbitcollection.org/artists/wang-lei-%E7%8E%8B%E9%9B%B7/. Paper from a Chinese-English dictionary was made into yarn then knitted into Imperial Robes. There’s also shifu, spun washi paper. I have a lovely Majacraft suzie pro spinning wheel which hasn’t seen much use in the last few years. After some trial and error I got a rough yarn, and the patterning on the store tissue paper gives some additional interest to the weaving. This is the one area where I used ghiordes knots and clearly they are great for some seaweed texture. I kept them limited because they make it so much harder to see the rest of the work in a small experimental sampler. Above the paper is some thin cord – bland.

Next up is the knitted tube of cotton, previously seen in Project 8 (blogged 22-Sept-2012). There are two rows of soumak, the lower one over two warp ends, the upper one over four. The longer length is better, as you can stretch and manipulate the yarn more to create texture, shape and height. It could be used as breaking waves, although care is needed as I’ve found it can take over quite easily. Dyeing the yarn could help.
At this point, halfway through the sampler, in all honesty I lost sight of the initial seaweed focus and got sidetracked onto an exploration of material and technique. At the bottom is the shredded silver paper. I used this in project 8 in early experiments with structure (blogged 13-Sept-2012). In that attempt I was able to retain the liveliness and wildness of the paper. Here it has been tamed, subdued. The multi-strand black yarn I used every other pick makes a very formal arrangement. I was trying to give the yarn space to shine. Darn
Next up in the photo above is cooking foil. Given the flatness of the silver paper, I decided to introduce some extra texture by loosely spinning the strips of foil before weaving. This created a faceted surface which catches the light and reflects in different directions. It also reflects some of the colour of the yarn around it, so I tried to extend that by spinning more foil, this time incorporating some cellophane. This has some potential. I’d like to try introducing lots of related colours around the foil in both warp and other wefts, plus bits of cellophane, and limit the foil to areas rather than across the width of the material. I’m thinking of light reflecting off water. In the backlit overall photo near the top it looks as if there’s some colouring of light coming through, but this isn’t so apparent in detail shots.

In this last section I tried spinning with newspaper. It creates a very matt surface, which could provide a useful contrast. There’s also a lot of visual texture and variation created by the glimpses of printed text and photographs, although nothing readable. I think this has potential as a background-with-interest. There are also conceptual possibilities in the choice of text or news story on the pages.
Finally there is cling-film wrap from the kitchen, and then bubblewrap. I just cut the clingfilm in half up its length and rolled it between my hands to form a “yarn”. The bubble wrap is a simple strip. Again my choice of weaving every other pick in black (the neoprene) gives a formality and rigidity. I don’t find the backlit view very interesting. It’s the reflections off the surface of the materials which adds light and life, displaying and taking advantage of the bubblewrap’s semi-spherical structure. Clearly (ho ho) the colour and texture of both warp and accompanying weft are very important.
For the last section of the weaving I was playing with ideas for the commentary that such materials could provide. You could create a sort of recycling diary – record all the waste materials that come into the house each week. Maybe just take junk mail for a period. You could sort by colour and weave patterns.
Not a line I’ll explore any time soon. Instead I think I now have enough distance and material to go ahead with the small sample required to complete this stage.

Project 9 Woven Structures Stages 1 & 2

Stage 1 of this project is to set up a tapestry frame, with suggestions for using a picture frame or art shop stretcher frame. I decided to improvise using my four shaft table loom.
In standard use it would look like this – a frame with a roller at the back to hold the warp, a roller at the front to hold the new cloth, a castle protruding up which has levers to select which shaft/s (and therefore warp ends) to lift, and a beater/reed assembly that spaces the warp ends and is used to push each new pick of weft into place (hard to see in this photo). The photo is from a 5-feb-2010 post.

The loom was in a bit of a mess. The warp left over from a class last year with Jason Collingwood (post 23-Apr-2011) was still threaded and wrapped around the castle. The castle/shaft assembly simply lifts out of the frame, so that wasn’t a problem – but I couldn’t bear to waste that beautiful linen warp. It’s not the cotton suggested in the course notes, but it seemed a reasonable substitute.

This is the end arrangement. The linen warp I was “saving” wasn’t a continuous length. Instead of wrapping the frame as suggested in the course notes, I wound onto the warp beam and lashed onto the cloth beam as I would normally, but with castle and beater taken out of the frame. I used a shed stick and heading cord as in the notes, plus a heddle rod and continuous string heddles. That last part stung me – I didn’t cross-check on my memory, and didn’t set it up properly – there’s a really nice tutorial with photos and video on this link, from Laverne Waddington’s incredibly informative blog backstrapweaving.wordpress.com.

Stage 2 involved experimentation with basic tapestry weaving techniques. It’s 23 – 25 cm wide (yes, I had some draw-in 🙂 ) and 27 cm long. Things are rather crammed in and hard to see, especially in photos. Not optimal – I was very conscious of postal weight and costs, combined with the fact that the sample is all or nothing, I can’t select which parts to include in the package for my tutor. I also had trouble with colour in the photographs. All the full shots were particularly bad, and I ended up fiddling with the colour on the best. Most of the photos below are straight from the camera (apart from scaling), with some odd inconsistencies in colour. (I’m not counting the huge variations in the three photos above of the same loom sitting on the same bench. They were taken at different times in different lights using different cameras.)

I started with some lovely Hy-craft rug wool from Glenora Weaving (the red and orange) and a slightly thinner green wool. From bottom to top:

* base of all red;

* stripes of two picks green, two picks red, repeated;

* columns of one pick green, one pick red. An extra pick of red then back to one and one meant that the column colours changed;

* 3 picks green, one pick red gave a dotted effect, with the dots staggered rather than in columns;

* an area of curved wefts in green, orange and a little red. This involved weaving back and forward in small sections, creating shapes.

The next section got hidden in the overall photo. The weft is torn strips of cotton fabric, first in a couple of curved areas to get back to a straight fell line, then some plain weave. I love the way the pattern crushes up.

Next two picks of rug wool to firm things up, a row of soumak in the fabric, two more picks of rug wool and a row of soumak back in the other direction. It looks a bit like a plait laid on top of the tapestry. I like it very much. There’s pattern and texture and it looks somehow sturdy and self-contained, while also decorative and fun.

This wall of ghiordes knots is what hides the cotton fabric. Each knot is four lengths of rug wool, so eight cut ends or tufts, which is pretty bulky and assertive. I tried to get a graduation from orange to green across the width. I haven’t trimmed the ends so they are rather wild and uneven. That’s my default preference, unless there is a specific purpose or requirement that a more structured, formal line of knots would suit.

After a couple of stabilising picks of plain weave I tried a row of continuous ghiordes knots, this time four strands of the red rug wool.

It’s interesting that some of the loops sit a bit differently. I think I may have twisted the strands together a bit at some points, while at others they were sitting side by side in the knot. That could be a real trap in a larger piece, depending on the effect you want.

In this photo across the weaving you can see the actual green/orange knots at the base. It could be interesting to play with this, changing the side where the knot sits – either in single row of knots or in repeated rows.

This section is so much nicer in person. I bundled together 10 or 12 fine threads, all different reds. There’s some wool, 2 ply and singles, cottons and lots of anonymous bits. I tried soumak over four threads, at first over the full width of the weaving then in discontinuous areas.
I introduced a green bundle of threads, mixed in amongst the red. For some additional variety I used a mixture of soumak over two threads and over four threads. The mix of different colours in each bundle, some matt wool, some shiny mercerised cotton, gives a really lively, glowing effect. The relief texture produced by the soumak also adds interest and variety. I can see this being used in ocean colours to suggest ruffled water. Depending on proportions and colour choice it could be a background foil providing quiet interest, or an intense focal point.
Here I went away from the course requirements, on my own little adventure. On the right in the green is a slit in the plain weave where I wove in sections rather than back and forward over the entire width. Instead of neatly starting fresh at the bottom of each section I just carried the weft yarn down from the top of the previous section. Possibly a useful effect – some deeper shadow or even a gap from the slit, and the vertical instead of horizontal line of the yarn (good to have the variation in colour to enhance that). One could also use the loop of yarn to attach… something. On the left is a more extreme experiment. I’ve been fascinated by the yarn wrapping in Sheila Hicks’ work. Follow this link and scroll down to Zapallar to see what I mean (an aside – I just found that link, from the Mint Museum in Charlotte, NC, and I so, so, so much wish I could visit there).

Assuming most people don’t click through, as a poor substitute I’ve included a shot from my sketchbook, based on Hicks’ work. On this first attempt at wrapping I continued with carrying down thread from the previous column. It gives a variation in texture, but is a bit distracting and confusing visually. Some latter attempts in the sampler work better.

lace & finger manipulated sampler

While I’m off-track, I’ll add that this carry-down idea was based on spanish lace. The red/grey example is from August-2008. I’m pretty sure there is some of this in Anni Albers piece that I looked at yesterday. All to me very interesting, and another great way to add movement and space and variety to what is basically plain weave, but definitely out of scope for this project.

This next section is mostly variations of previous techniques. There are curved or eccentric wefts, this time in a variety of fabrics. I outlined each area with a row of soumak in rug wool. I really like weaving with fabric strips, but in this weft-faced tapestry I found it difficult to beat it down enough to cover the warp. The rug wool knots are nice and firm and keep things packed down. It also gives some nice definition to the shapes I was forming. While working I was thinking of rock strata – with the right fabric choice this could work really well.

On the right of the photo you can see another version of the wrapped warps. I love the possibilities for playing with horizontal and vertical, and dense areas with space. The row of orange soumak towards the top gives some lovely shadow and a little height. This was done over four warp threads, perhaps with a slightly looser tension, and give quite a different effect to the over-two-threads red below. The relatively smooth weaving in wool around it, rather than the textured fabric, also adds to the effect.

The sharp angle of green meeting orange is another off-project technique. It’s clasped or interlocking wefts. Kaz Madigan (curiousweaver.id.au) has some nice photos on how to do it here and a video tutorial here. There are also diagrams of some alternative versions in Albers’ book.

These three thumbnails show my attempt to experiment with fancy yarns. They are side by side near the top of the weaving. I’ve heard/read somewhere that fancy yarns are more effective if given some space – you see move of the texture if it’s contrasted to areas of non-texture. So with each yarn I first did single picks to get dots of colour and texture surrounded by green, then two picks in a row to get a line, then a row of soumak to get a heavy, raised line, then a row of continuous (uncut) ghiordes knots to get still more height and yarn showing. Clearly I didn’t leave enough open space around each section. In the photos it’s just a muddled mass/mess. Fortunately it’s possible when holding the sampler in your hands to cover up the surrounding bits and concentrate on a particular section, so it is still usable. The effects achieved are definitely different, and as always which you would choose to use depends of what you’re trying to do.

My final experiment used a more complex fabric and thread combination. I’ve enjoyed the height and springy-ness of organza in previous work in the course. This variation has two colours of synthetic organza. It looked a little dull and I was concerned that the colours might blend into blah while weaving, so I added some sparkle with four different metallic threads, everything wound together on a small stick shuttle. The first section is continuous, uncut ghiordes knots, since I thought that would give the space and height to really show off the organza’s oomph. In my eyes it worked well in a rather cheap-and-cheerful way. I’m thinking sunshine and sea-side rock (the boiled sugar confectionery).

Partway through I realised I hadn’t created enough “yarn” for a full row of ghiordes knots, so I finished with some simple loops. To do this you weave a pick, then with the shed still open use a knitting needle to pick up a loop of yarn each place the weft sits over the warp, then close the shed and beat gently with the knitting needle still in place supporting the loops. Obviously it’s all pretty unstable – there are no knots to keep the loops in place – so keep the knitting needle there for the next few picks and beat them down firmly. Different size needles will give different size loops, and of course you don’t have to pick up at every point – you could have a line that stops and starts or trails off…… ….. .. . . .     .
After all the above I’m reasonably happy with this sampler. I didn’t use a huge variety of wefts – that’s in the next stage. I think I stayed true to the general thrust of the project requirements, with just a few variations and additions that I learnt in “normal” (to me) weaving but that make sense in tapestry. Some of them worked (the final wrapped columns), others not so much (the spanish lace variants). I just need to keep pushing.

Resources:
Albers, A., (1965) On Weaving. Dover edition published 2003, an unabridged reproduction ed. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press.
Simon, J and Faxon, S (2010) Sheila Hicks: 50 years, Andover, Addison Gallery of American Art, Phillips Academy in association with Yale University Press

Reading about Weaving

Throughout this OCA course I’ve been looking forward to Project 9 with a mixture of excitement and trepidation. For the past several years weaving has been my textile focus/obsession – but this isn’t weaving as I know it. I’ve been warming up by re-reading a couple of classic weaving texts.

Weaving as an art form: A personal statement by Theo Moorman includes a lot of information about the weaving technique she developed and which is named after her. The Moorman Technique combines a ground weave with inlaid colour that is bound or tied to the ground using a separate fine warp. Finding tapestry too slow, Moorman looked for a less laborious way to weave dense, rich colour and texture.
I’ve briefly used the technique, in a class with Kay Faulkner (blogged 19-April-2010). The photo shows my sample and some notes. I’d like to try using this in parallel with some of the OCA exercises, but it would be additional to the requirements so I’ll have see how time goes.

Moorman’s book is about much more than her technique. There is her personal journey, together with her deeply considered thoughts on weaving as art, the challenges and the opportunities facing the modern textile artist (the book was published in 1975, but most of the ideas seem to me fresh and current). For example Moorman writes of textile artists “almost intoxicated” by the abundance of materials available – natural and manmade, traditional or found – and the need to maintain control lest an “undigested tangle of richness” or “strange and unorganized accumulation of trash” result, rather than the intended work of art (Moorman, page 8).

The design approach discussed includes careful observation, sketching, abstraction. I like the idea of exploiting as positives what could be seen as limitations in weaving – horizontal and vertical lines, imprecise linear patterns etc. I would like to see some of Moorman’s work closeup and in person. There are lots of photos in this little book, but many are black and white and/or distance views.

On Weaving by Anni Albers is another great read that makes me excited about the possibilities for self expression through weaving. Albers describes the history of weaving and the loom. She regards ancient Peru as the most accomplished textile civilization and one recurring theme of the book is that each technological development in looms may provide efficiencies in time and labour, but at the price of limiting the weaver’s freedom, control and flexibility.

Albers presents the fundamental constructions in weaving, and ways of modifying and combining them in limitless combinations. The individual characters of yarns and weave structures work together – or against each other – in the final textile.

This book takes a wide view of weaving, but there is a chapter specifically on tapestry. Like Moorman, Albers does not advocate tapestry as woven versions of paintings. Innovation within the natural discipline of the medium has the potential for expressive, persuasive art.

Although not the focus of the book, I find the illustrations of Alber’s own work very exciting. In the past I’ve tried to supplement my viewing of photos by working in my sketchbook (some examples looking at Sheila Hick’s work can be seen in sketchbook 5, link here). Following my tutor’s comment on not restricting myself to conventional drawing media, I tried extending my original sketch into a small weaving. In the photo you can see an illustration from Albers’ book in the bottom left (“Under Way”, 1963), part of my initial sketch, then on the lower right an attempt at a little weaving based on the original image.

Click on this thumbnail if you want a closer view of my experiment. Of course it’s not right in so many different ways – I won’t even start. On the other hand, my sketch is also very not right. Both helped me really take some time and look carefully at the photo, and a closeup on the next page. While working I kept thinking of Sheila Hick’s small works, almost a diary, trying different ideas and techniques. I’d like to try this sort of thing again.

Albers, A., 1965. On Weaving. Dover edition published 2003, an unabridged reproduction ed. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press.

Moorman, T., 1975. Weaving as an art form: A personal statement. Atglen, PA: Schiffer Publishing Ltd.


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